Citizen science practices have different frames to general scientific research – the adoption of participatory methods in research design has long been pursued in citizen science projects. The citizen science research design process should be inclusive, flexible, and adaptive in all its stages, from research question formulation to evidence-based collective results. Some citizen science initiatives adopt strategies that include co-creation techniques and methodologies from a wide variety of disciplines and practices. In this sense, the will to collaborate between researchers and other stakeholders is not new. It is traditionally found in public participation in science, including participatory action research (PAR) and the involvement of civil society organisations (CSOs) in research, as well as in mediatory structures, such as science shops. This chapter critically reviews methodologies, techniques, skills, and participation based on experiences of civic involvement and co-creation in research and discusses their limitations and potential improvements. Our focus is on the reflexivity approach and infrastructure needed to design citizen science projects, as well as associated key roles. Existing tools that can be used to enhance and improve citizen participation at each stage of the research process will also be explored. We conclude with a series of reflections on participatory practices.
Senabre Hidalgo, E., Perelló, J., Becker, F., Bonhoure, I., Legris, M., & Cigarini, A. Participation and Co-creation in Citizen Science. The Science of Citizen Science, 199. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-58278-4_11